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Singapore Variable Capital Company (VCC)

Understanding Singapore’s Variable Capital Company (VCC):

A Comprehensive Guide

The introduction of Variable Capital Companies (VCCs) in Singapore enhances its financial landscape by providing a flexible, innovative framework for investment funds. This model caters to the evolving needs of fund managers and investors, reinforcing Singapore’s role as a financial hub.

At Fastcorp, we streamline the process of establishing a VCC. Leveraging Singapore’s supportive regulations, we guide clients through every step, ensuring compliance with local authorities like MAS and ACRA. Our detailed roadmap covers essential steps, insider tips, and compliance strategies for a smooth transition from planning to operation.

What is a Variable Capital Company (VCC)? 

Variable Capital Company (VCC) in Singapore’s Financial Sector

In the dynamic landscape of Singapore’s financial sector, the introduction of the Variable Capital Company (VCC) marks a significant innovation, enhancing the city-state’s appeal as a global hub for fund management. The VCC is a specialized corporate structure tailored to meet the needs of investment funds, combining the necessary flexibility for global investment dynamics with Singapore’s robust regulatory environment. This framework supports a broad range of investment strategies, from traditional asset management to hedge funds and private equity, enabling these funds to operate with unprecedented dynamism and efficiency.

Development of the VCC Framework

The creation of the VCC framework stems from Singapore’s strategic goal to boost its competitive edge in the global financial market. Recognizing the need for a more versatile and efficient fund structure, the Singaporean legislature, together with the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) and the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority (ACRA), developed the VCC Act. Officially enacted in January 2020, this legislation was the result of extensive consultations with industry stakeholders, designed to tackle operational challenges faced by global fund managers and align with international best practices in fund domiciliation.

Legislative Foundations and Future Implications

The VCC’s legislative foundations highlight Singapore’s proactive stance on financial innovation, showcasing a forward-thinking approach that not only meets current investment community needs but also anticipates future trends. By offering a corporate structure that merges operational flexibility with stringent governance standards, the VCC framework stands as a testament to Singapore’s commitment to maintaining its status as a top destination for fund management. This commitment reinforces the city-state’s dedication to excellence and innovation in the financial services sector.

Structure of a VCC

The Variable Capital Company (VCC) framework in Singapore introduces a versatile and innovative approach to fund management, underpinned by a governance structure and operational model designed to meet the demands of the modern investment landscape. At the heart of the VCC’s architecture lies its ability to function both as a standalone fund and as an umbrella entity comprising multiple sub-funds, each with its own investment strategy and asset pool. This structural dexterity not only enhances operational efficiency but also offers fund managers a cost-effective way to manage diverse investment portfolios under a single corporate veil.

Versatile Fund Management

Secure and Predictable Business Environment: The political stability in Singapore provides a secure and reliable setting for business operations. The government’s commitment to integrity, transparency, and efficiency has established Singapore as one of the least corrupt and most stable countries in the world.

Sub-Fund Arrangement

Gateway to Asia-Pacific: Singapore is situated at the crossroads of major shipping and air routes, offering unmatched access to the rapidly growing markets of the Asia-Pacific region. This strategic positioning makes it an essential hub for international trade and business operations.

Governance and Oversight

Supportive Ecosystem for Growth: Singapore provides a conducive business environment with easy company registration, robust intellectual property protection, and supportive policies for startups and SMEs. Its attractive tax regime, featuring competitive rates and various incentives, enhances its premier business hub appeal.

Operational Efficiency

Diverse and Vibrant Market Conditions: Singapore boasts a dynamic economy with vibrant trade, substantial foreign investment, and a varied industrial sector. These factors create a fertile environment for businesses across different sectors, enhancing opporutnities for growth and innovation.

Key Features of Variable Capital Companies (VCC)

The Variable Capital Company (VCC) framework introduces a paradigm shift in Singapore’s fund management landscape, setting itself apart with distinct characteristics that redefine efficiency and flexibility in investment fund operations. Central to its design, the VCC boasts a flexible capital structure, robust governance, and privacy protocols, all of which collectively contribute to its growing preference among fund managers and investors globally. Delving deeper into what makes the VCC a revolutionary corporate structure, we uncover its core features that distinguish it from traditional investment vehicles.

Flexible Capital Structure

Dividend Distribution Flexibility

Comparison with Other Corporate Structures

Variable Capital Company (VCC)

Flexible Capital Structure

One hallmark attribute of the VCC is its flexible capital structure, allowing the issue and redemption of shares without shareholder approval. This mechanism enables dynamic adjustments to the fund’s capital base, efficiently responding to investor subscriptions and redemptions. Consequently, fund liquidity can be managed proactively, swiftly adapting to changes in investment flows and market conditions. This is in stark contrast to more rigid corporate structures, where altering the capital base is often a cumbersome process filled with procedural formalities.

Variable Capital Company (VCC)

Dividend Distribution Flexibility

Another distinguishing aspect of the VCC is its ability to pay dividends out of capital. Unlike traditional corporate entities that are typically restricted to distributing dividends from earned profits, VCCs can return capital to investors as dividends. This flexibility is particularly advantageous for investment funds that may not generate regular profits but can realise gains on investments over time. It allows fund managers to optimise return on investment for shareholders, providing a more attractive and versatile dividend policy.

Variable Capital Company (VCC)

Comparison with Other Corporate Structures

The VCC’s distinct characteristics fundamentally set it apart from other corporate structures available in Singapore. The combination of a flexible capital base, the capability for straightforward share issuance and redemption, along with the innovative approach to dividend distribution, positions the VCC as a highly attractive option for fund domiciliation. These features, tailored specifically for the needs of the investment fund industry, offer strategic advantages in operational efficiency, governance, and investor satisfaction not readily found in conventional corporate entities.

 Benefits of a Variable Capital Company (VCC)

Variable Capital Company (VCC)

Tax Efficiency

The VCC framework in Singapore offers unmatched tax efficiency, leveraging the city-state’s favourable tax regime with exemptions and incentives ideal for investment funds. This allows VCCs to minimise tax liabilities, offering investors higher returns compared to traditional fund structures and giving VCCs a competitive edge in fund domiciliation.

Variable Capital Company (VCC)


VCCs prioritise confidentiality, ensuring shareholder information remains private, unlike some traditional fund structures where such details may be publicly accessible. This appeals to investors who prioritise discretion, enhancing the attractiveness of VCCs for those seeking privacy in their financial dealings.

Variable Capital Company (VCC)

Operational Flexibility

VCCs offer significant operational flexibility, streamlining the management and administration of funds. Whether as standalone entities or umbrella organizations with multiple sub-funds, VCCs reduce administrative burdens and operational costs, allowing fund managers to manage diverse portfolios under one corporate entity efficiently.

Variable Capital Company (VCC)

Strategic Fund Management

The VCC framework sets a new global benchmark for fund structures, offering tax benefits, confidentiality, and operational flexibility. These features make VCCs not just an alternative, but a superior choice for fund managers and investors looking to leverage Singapore’s dynamic financial ecosystem, thus bolstering its status as a leading global financial hub.

Fastcorp’s Guide to Establishing a VCC in Singapore

Step 1: Preparation and Strategic Alignment

The journey begins with choosing a unique and meaningful company name, adhering to ACRA (Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority) guidelines to ensure it’s distinct and compliant with local laws, avoiding any trademarks or prohibited terms.

Step 2: Company Structure Determination

Selecting the right business structure is pivotal. Whether it’s a Sole Proprietorship, Partnership, or the popular Private Limited Company, each has its implications on liability, tax obligations, and capital raising capabilities. We guide you through these options to find the best fit for your business ambitions.

Step 3: Document Preparation

Next, we prepare all necessary documentation for registration:

  • Company Constitution: Defines the company’s rules.
  • Consent Forms: From directors and the company secretary.
  • Identification and Address Details: For all key personnel.
  • Business Activity Description: Outlining what your company does.


Step 4: Registration with ACRA

We handle the entire registration process through the BizFile+ portal, from submitting your application and paying the nominal fee to ensuring you receive your incorporation confirmation and unique entity number (UEN) from ACRA.

Step 5: Post-Registration Formalities

After registration, we will assist with:

  • Opening a corporate bank account.
  • Applying for necessary licences and permits.
  • Registering for GST if your turnover meets the threshold.
Step 6: Ongoing Compliance

We continue to support your business by keeping you updated on regulatory requirements, helping with annual filings with ACRA and IRAS, and ensuring compliance with corporate governance norms like holding Annual General Meetings (AGMs).

Regulatory and Compliance Obligations

The regulatory landscape for Variable Capital Companies (VCCs) in Singapore is robust and designed to uphold high standards of financial integrity and transparency. This is crucial as VCCs are a relatively new addition to Singapore’s financial sector, offering a flexible structure for investment funds.

The regulatory framework includes strict financial reporting requirements, mandatory audits, and comprehensive anti-money laundering (AML) protocols. Each VCC must adhere to the Singapore Financial Reporting Standards (SFRS) for clarity and consistency in financial disclosures. This ensures that all financial statements accurately reflect the fund’s condition and operations, which is vital for investor confidence and regulatory compliance.

Regular audits by accredited auditors are another key requirement. These audits validate the accuracy of financial statements and help maintain transparency, further building investor trust and ensuring that the VCC operates in line with legal and regulatory expectations.

Moreover, the rigorous AML measures that VCCs must implement underscore Singapore’s commitment to combating financial crime. These measures require VCCs to have effective systems in place to detect, deter, and report potential money laundering activities. Such protocols are essential not only for compliance but also for protecting the financial system and maintaining the high reputation of Singapore’s financial sector.

Overall, these regulations ensure that VCCs operate efficiently and transparently, maintaining their credibility and appeal in the competitive international fund management arena. Compliance is more than just meeting legal requirements; it’s about building a foundation of trust and reliability that is critical for long-term success.

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